Thus, the Landsat observation is one of the earliest and clearest demonstrations that high surface temperatures associated with fumaroles can be detected by short-wavelength infrared satellite imaging."] 2012: January Continued high SO2 concentrations over Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (75 milli atm cm) indicated ongoing emissions at the time of the TOMS overpass. Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Nyamuragira has been described as Africa’s most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since 1885.As well as eruptions from the summit, there have been numerous eruptions from the flanks of the volcano, creating new smaller volcanoes that have lasted … The Observatory stated that wind had blown ash towards the W and ash fall had destroyed ~50 km2 of pasture and 150 km2 of crops up to 30 km from the volcano in the towns of Rusaya, Kirolirwe, Burungu, Minova, the Masisi territory, and the S part of Kichanga. National Park guards saw "smoke" rising above the volcano about an hour earlier. Minor changes were made to some of the quoted material (e.g., date formats; with additions in square or hard brackets, [ ]). November 2006 eruption produces extensive lava flows. Take a Volcano Vacation: The Latest Eruption of Nyamuragira Tourists watch a November 2011 eruption of Nyamuragira in the DR Congo. The last eruption of Nyamulagira was on July 26, 2002 and did not cause casualties but destroyed dense tropical forest that is home to rich and varied wildlife. The swarms were recorded by the entire seismic network at the volcano, as far away as 90 km S of the volcano. It may be worth emphasizing that the increased number of people could signify an increased human vulnerability in the event of escalating volcanic activity (Dario Tedesco, Pers. On its overpass of Nyamuragira at 1056 on 8 May 2004, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) detected large SO2 clouds released by the current eruption of Nyamuragira. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL:; Lava volume was estimated at 150-200 x 106 m3. Sources: NASA Earth Observatory; NOAA Satellite and Information Service; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team. . The volcano remained quiet with no reports of thermal activity until April 2018 (figure 73). Seismicity steadily increased from <200 volcanic events/month in 1960-65 to ~300-400/month in the early 1980's (figure 13). Tall lava fountains from Nyamuragira early on 8 Nov 2011 (day 2 of the new eruption) (Video: Virunga National Park gorillacd's Channel on YouTube) Nyamuragira volcano Nyamuragira, a large shield volcano similar to Mauna Loa on Hawai'i, is one of Africa's most active volcanoes. The Toulouse VAAC reported that satellite imagery showed a weak eruption of ash at Nyamuragira on 25 May. They stated that activity at Nyamuragira was changing very rapidly and an eruption may occur in a matter of days or weeks. This variation could result from a combination of factors, including: (1) clouds?an apparent shape/ orientation of the anomaly can be induced by the fact that some portions of the flow-field may have been obscured at the moment of image acquisition; (2) sensor zenith angle?the data for 4 December 2006 were acquired when the satellite was within 1 to 16° of being directly overhead, whereas on other days (i.e. Information Contacts: Baluku Bajope and Kasereka Mahinda, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. The eruption was preceded by many tectonic quakes, and has also shaken nearby Nyiragongo volcano, which is … A third vent (named Kimanura) opened 26 April ~500 m N of the 1905 (Kanamaharagi) cone (1.43°S, 29.3°E, altitude 1,869 m). Earthquake swarm, then fissure eruption feeds lava flows. Nouvelles donnees lithologiques sur les volcans actifs des Virunga (Afrique centrale). Nyamuragira's new eruption has been called by scientists the "biggest eruption of the volcano within the last century" after a 1km long fissure erupted last week. This false-color view combines shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green light. Remarks: InSAR coverage of the 2000 eruption is poor, but one Radarsat interferogram shows subsidence of the crater. This cloud contained ~ 190 kt of SO2. MODVOLC thermal alerts ceased after 8 April, and the MIROVA thermal data also confirmed a decrease in the strength of the thermal signal during April 2019 (figure 84). Seismic recordings in the first half of October were severely impaired by frequent power disruptions to the observatory and the regular discharge of the batteries. An eruption from a new crater on the SW flank of Nyamuragira began on 23 December. "This [lava fountaining] activity stopped mid-September 2014 and, on 1 November 2014, a small lava lake, i.e. On 10 May at 1055 a broad SO2 cloud extended up to ~ 180 km W, ~ 360 km S, and ~ 260 km ESE of the volcano, completely covering Rwanda and Burundi, with the highest SO2 concentrations detected in a zone directed SSE across Rwanda. According to reports from the Goma Volcano Observatory, since late October 2002 tectonic and magmatic seismicity at Nyamuragira has continued. During this time volcanic seismicity was masked by aftershocks from a tectonic earthquake on 24 October 2002. During December, seismicity continued at Nyamuragira and may have increased. Some very minor and brief activity (possibly witnessed) might have occurred in the central crater, which was not visible from the Rumangabo site. This increase was thought to be related to rifting in the area of the Large African Lakes. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows thermal anomalies within the summit crater that varied in both frequency and power between August 2019 and mid-March 2020, but very few were recorded afterward through late May (figure 88). . . Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout ~2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow ~20 m wide. A seismic crisis started the night of 26 February and continued through the next morning. The main flows were 10.5-11 km long, and covered portions of the flow from the 2006 eruption (Ushindi) (figure 33). Daily SO2 flux at Nyamuragira, measured by OMI during 28 November to 4 December 2006. Thermal anomalies were persistent throughout 2015, with a noted increase in both frequency and magnitude during July (figure 62 C). A team of Japanese seismologists measured strong seismic activity 6-9 January, then a decrease on the 10th. The high seismic activity could also be related to regeneration of the Nyamuragira lava lake or to activity of the Nyiragongo lava lake. Scientists from the University of Hawaii used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), an instrument carried aboard NASA's Earth Observing System satellites) to image thermal anomalies associated with the eruption. A photograph from an Instagram user of an image reported as Nyamuragira on 26 January 2017 shows the lava lake at the bottom of the summit crater (figure 70). GVO noted that seismic swarms typically precede eruptions by 3-5 months and that an eruption could occur from the southern side. 14 at the S end of the fissure, producing intermittent lava fountains. The last eruption of Nyamuragira was in 2006, a VEI 2 event that produced lava flows on the south flank, similar to what is occurring now. The main flow (estimated to be 15 km long) moved toward the NNE and changed direction after a few kilometers to move toward the NE. It is 13 km north-north-west of Nyiragongo, the volcano which caused extensive damage to the city of Goma in its 2002 eruption. is ~18 km N of Goma, the city where the major encampment of Rwandan civil-war refugees is located. 19) opened during the night of 4-5 July (figure 12). By 8 February, the northern anomaly had increased in size and was orientated in a SSW-NNE direction, and a second anomaly had appeared just to the SSE of the summit. Reference. Persistent long-period earthquakes were associated with magma movement. 2006: November Bull Volcanol, 33: 1128-1144. . For the eruption's first two weeks, lava fountaining was confined to the S end of a fissure ~500 m long. The two main cones were symmetrical and located on the N (Amani) and S (Tumayhini) flanks, along the fissure connecting Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. Smets' team noted that by 1 November 2014 GVO had seen a small lava lake in the deepest part of the crater. Many lateral overflows were visible on the E side of the main flow. On 6 July 2005, the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) reported that a significant seismic crisis had occurred at Nyamuragira in late June 2005. N-flank fractures had opened and extended for ~2 km, reaching from the crater rim (2,959 m) down to an elevation of ~2,540 m. At the beginning of the activity, lava fountains appeared along the fractures and spatter accumulated around them. The Alert Level for the nearby city of Goma remained at Yellow. Their log said that the ". The two lava flows associated with the eruption (mapped during this study) are superimposed in black. Only very dense "smoke" was observed coming from the cones. B., Lubala, R. T., Brousse, R., and others, 1984, Sur l'eruption du Nyamulagira de Decembre 1981 a Janvier 1982: Cone et Coulee du Rugarambiro (Kivu, Zaire): BV, v. 47, p. 79-105. During some eruptions, lava lakes are formed within the caldera. Beginning on 11 January, this height began to decrease irregularly to 50-150 m high. The National Museum of Natural History of Luxembourg also used this technique, called SAR interferometry, or InSAR, to study the ground deformation during the eruption. An overflight on 27 September confirmed the end of this eruptive episode when observers failed to see any still-active lava flow and the eruptive cones displayed only fumaroles. The front of the main flow appeared to be very wide, though it remained within the National Park boundaries. Another data gap on 11 May prevented measurements directly over eastern DRC, but a large SO2 mass (~ 116 kt) was present W of the data gap, ~ 560 km S of Nyamuragira at its maximum extent. Last eruption: May 2002–present Geology. Volcanism that began on 6 February 2001 continued into March. Occasionally, both vents were active simultaneously, but explosions usually alternated between them, building a double cone with estimated dimensions of 100 m height and 200-300 m width by 17 February. In a Nature News Feature, Nayar (2009) discusses Lake Kivu's dissolved gases, some of which are toxic, and others, such as methane, which are potentially valuable economically. Both aa and pahoehoe were observed between the new vent and the W vents. Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Status Minor Eruption 2019 3058m Shield (Rift zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)) Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. See also: 26 Feb 02 | Africa Goma: One month on . Bull Volcanol, 47: 79-105. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. Beginning in April 2012 elevated values occurred more than 20 days per month through December 2012. Even without a crisis, ongoing strong passive degassing contaminates rainwater, which is the primary water source in parts of the region (Cuoco and others, 2013). MODVOLC thermal alerts also first appeared on 18 April 2018. The last eruption at Nyamuragira occurred during 25 July-27 September 2002 (BGVN 27:07, 27:10, and 28:01). This was followed by a period of degassing with SO2-rich plumes, but no observed thermal activity, from April 2012 through April 2014. On 7 November the Park uploaded 39 seconds of their footage on Youtube. Thermal anomaly data from MIROVA suggest a pulse of activity during late April through early June 2016 (figure 62 D). A 400-m-long fissure opened before dawn 26 December in the saddle between Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. A report by Dario Tedesco stated that in March 2012, a series of explosion earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory. According to the satellite data, lava flowed slightly N of E for 6-8 km, then turned more to the N. By 0100 on 26 December, the flow front appeared to be 12-14 km from the vents, but its advance had slowed substantially from the initial rate of 20-24 km/hour to less than 6 km/hour. Seismic activity in late February included fracturing earthquakes, mainly on the N and NE sides of the volcano. The final report of the GORISK Scientific Network (Kervyn and others, 2010) stated that this eruption ended by 27 January 2010. High lava fountaining in early July took place from a new vent on the W flank, named Kimera. An eruption began at Nyamuragira on 25 July 2002 (BGVN 27:07). Since 1980 there has been an average of one eruption every two years. This 2002 eruption started with a few signs in December 2000 where there were a few earthquakes/ volcanic tremors in the region that were prolonged. . | April The base can be reached with a walk of 5 hours going and 3 hours returning. Nyriragongo and Nyamuragira are the only two active volcanoes in the region. An SO2 plume was detected on each day from 18 through 29 October. High-frequency earthquakes in the E disappeared during the period. An unusually large earthquake (Mw 6.1-6.2) and its aftershock (Mw 5.5) struck the region on 24 October 2002. During the first episode, from late May to early September 2014, lava fountains were observed in early July, and reported to be active through September (BGVN 40.01). During the end of June, the Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that the magnitude of the low-frequency earthquakes and the amplitude of volcanic tremor had increased significantly. An eruption began on 16 July at 1500 [but see 11:8] from a fissure near the 1976 eruption site of Harakandi, on the SSW flank at ~2,200 m elevation. Lava flowed down the S flank of the volcano, threatening to reach roads running N from the town of Goma ~30 km away. Six or seven blocks of lava as large as 100 m across floated on top of the flowing lava, moving downslope at ~2 m/hour. Congo: Geophys. No further activity was reported through November 2017. It is among the most active volcanoes in Africa. Further analysis of the University of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODIS Hotspot Alert website data revealed that most of a year's anomalies (mid-April 2006 to mid-April 2007) between the two volcanos were measured during the period mid-November to mid-December 2006, probably related to the eruption of Nyamuragira that began on 27 November 2006. Following this activity, the fissure eruptions suddenly stopped. Activity during November 2011-March 2012. At 1050 on 27 July EP TOMS detected ~150 kt of SO2 in a plume extending to the edge of the EP TOMS swath ~500 km W of Nyamuragira (figure 21). Several farmers reported problems caused by cattle eating ash-laden grass. For about a month, the park allowed overnight treks to the eruption site. Eruption in 2014 Nyamuragira is a 3,058 metres (10,033 ft) shield volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo. No thermal anomalies were reported within 5 km of the summit from June through November 2017. The name means Herd of Cows. Ash from the eruption blew W, destroying ~50 km2 of pasture land and ~150 km2 of crops in the towns of Rusayo, Kirolirwe, Burungu, the southern part of Kichanga, the Masisi territory, and Minova. Virunga National Park has been closed for months. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite tracked the emission of this gas from the volcano from 28 November to 4 December 2006 (figure 26). Although seismic activity and warning phone calls occurred at the same time, there was no visible eruptive activity. As of 6 May, the volcano was still erupting. The Goma Volcano Observatory reported that a new eruption at Nyamuragira, which began on 8 May at 0548, was marked by strong volcanic tremor. Only fumarolic activity was observed and weak tremor was recorded. Monitoring of both active Virunga volcanoes is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. After the initial explosion, lava was extruded from the lower end of the fissure and flowed N. Residents fled the area. During the next few days, the eruptive activity migrated to this new edifice. Six range decrease and three range increase fringes equate to a minimum total LOS displacement of ~ 25 cm. The VRP is calculated in Watts (W) and represents a combined measurement of the area of the volcanic emitter and its effective radiating temperature. Activity briefly declined on 7 August and stopped for 12 hours on the 8th, then a new lava fountain developed the next day. Many birds and rodents similar to small rabbits were killed in the tephra fall area. Lett., v. 30, no. Mount Nyamuragira. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on 29 January. Nyamuragira last erupted during May 2004; weak but steady ash emissions continued until 1 June 2004, when satellite imagery indicated that the eruption had ceased (BGVN 29:05). 16, p. 177, 181. It is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Heavy tephra falls occurred N, E, and S of the cone. Nyamuragira volcano is an active volcano near the city of Goma of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Lake Kivu. These vents remained active at the end of May, as did no. Nyamuragira is a shield volcano and one of Africa's most active. According to scientists from the Afar Consortium Project visiting the 2011 fissure eruption, activity continued on 8 January 2012. This eruption did not affect any of the nearby communities in the vicinity but left behind a lot of ash and air pollution. Two bands image at a nominal resolution of 250 m at nadir, five bands at 500 m and the remaining 29 bands at 1,000 m. MODIS observed no hot spots prior to detecting a ~7 x 5 km anomaly centered 7-10 km N of the volcano summit on 7 February. By 8 February the anomaly had increased in size and was oriented in a SSW-NNE direction; a second hot spot, ~13x6 km in size and oriented towards the E-ESE, was detected SSE of the summit. Besides ash and possible lava, the volcano also released extensive sulfur dioxide (SO2), a feature of this volcano that has been mentioned repeatedly in the literature (see some references below). On all subsequent days the anomaly was limited to the N flank. Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent. In addition, a 2-km-long eruptive fracture on the volcano's NNW flank had several lava fountains along it and two cones being built. 03/1971 (CSLP 31-71) Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, 04/1971 (CSLP 31-71) Lava flows and widespread tephra deposition, 12/1976 (NSEB 01:15) Lava eruption from new SW flank crater on 23 December, 02/1977 (NSEB 02:02) Additional information about late-December 1976 activity, 03/1977 (NSEB 02:03) Lava flows from a new cone on the S flank, 01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Lava flowing northward, 02/1980 (SEAN 05:02) Hot tephra and gases kill livestock and plants, 03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Large lava flows and new cone on N flank, 12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Fissure eruption; lava flow and tephra column, 01/1982 (SEAN 07:01) 30 km lava flows; heavy tephra falls, 02/1984 (SEAN 09:02) Lava flows from NW flank, 03/1984 (SEAN 09:03) Large lava flows and tephra ejection from flank fissure, 07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) Reported S-flank eruption, 08/1986 (SEAN 11:08) SSW flank fissure eruption feeds 17 km lava flow, 08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Correction to July 1986 eruption site, 01/1988 (SEAN 13:01) Lava flow and fountaining, 02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent, 04/1989 (SEAN 14:04) Lava erupts from summit and E flank, 05/1989 (SEAN 14:05) Inflation precedes fissure eruption; large lava flows, 09/1989 (SEAN 14:09) Landsat data suggest continuing activity at April vent, 09/1991 (BGVN 16:09) Lava flows and plumes reported, 10/1991 (BGVN 16:10) Earthquake swarm, then fissure eruption feeds lava flows, 01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) More information and map of late-1991 fissure eruption, 06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Continued lava production from fissure vents, 07/1992 (BGVN 17:07) NE-flank fissures continue to produce lava, 08/1992 (BGVN 17:08) Intermittent lava extrusion and ash emission from several vents, 09/1992 (BGVN 17:09) Continued lava production from fissure vent, 06/1994 (BGVN 19:06) Ash emission from new vent on W flank, 07/1994 (BGVN 19:07) High lava fountains feed lava flow on NW flank, 08/1994 (BGVN 19:08) Summit caldera observations, 01/1996 (BGVN 21:01) High levels of seismicity during September 1995, 10/1996 (BGVN 21:10) August seismic buildup and a 1 December eruption, 10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Flank lava flow in October; TOMS data, 01/2000 (BGVN 25:01) As 27 January eruption began, witnesses assumed they heard artillery fire, 01/2001 (BGVN 26:01) Lava flows began erupting in early February; one injury reported, 03/2001 (BGVN 26:03) Volcanism that began on 6 February 2001 continued into March, 12/2001 (BGVN 26:12) MODIS data for February 2001 eruption; no January 2002 eruption, 07/2002 (BGVN 27:07) Eruption began on 25 July and continued through at least early August 2002, 10/2002 (BGVN 27:10) Multi-vent eruption, 25 July-27 September 2002; regional earthquake, 01/2003 (BGVN 28:01) Infrared satellite data from the 25 July 2002 eruption, 08/2003 (BGVN 28:08) Rumbling and explosion sounds April-June, but no confirmed eruptions, 09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Long-period earthquakes and swarms in July 2003, 10/2003 (BGVN 28:10) Long-period earthquake swarms, 12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) Political instability limits field access; growing seismicity, 04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) New eruption on 8 May spawns cones, lava lake, fountains, and lava flows, 05/2004 (BGVN 29:05) During 26 May-1 June observers noted weak eruptions and local ashfall, 01/2006 (BGVN 31:01) To the N, swarms of long-period, along-rift earthquakes, 01/2007 (BGVN 32:01) October seismic swarm followed by the eruption of 27 November 2006, 03/2007 (BGVN 32:03) November 2006 eruption produces extensive lava flows, 08/2010 (BGVN 35:08) January 2010 flank eruption produces a new cone and 12-km-long lava flows, 03/2014 (BGVN 39:03) Eruption during 6 November 2011 to April 2012; pit crater morphology changes, 01/2015 (BGVN 40:01) April 2011-January 2015: Lava fountains; and by 1 November, a lava lake, 06/2017 (BGVN 42:06) Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017, 11/2017 (BGVN 42:11) Thermal activity decreases and ends in May 2017, 05/2019 (BGVN 44:05) Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019, 12/2019 (BGVN 44:12) Strong thermal anomalies and fumaroles within the summit crater during June-November 2019, 06/2020 (BGVN 45:06) Intermittent thermal anomalies within the summit crater during December 2019-May 2020, Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, Card 1161 (29 March 1971) Eruption started on 24 March from the S flank, "An eruption started 24 March 1971 on the south slopes of Nyamuragire volcano.". 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